Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies


A physiotherapeutic method during which the therapist manually corrects the articulated connections and restores their mobility.

It was created by Daniel David Palmer (USA) in 1885. It is based on the assumption that deflection of a part of the skeleton can pressure nerves, which then has other negative consequences.

The connection between the spine and/or other joints and the nervous system is of utmost importance: accidents, falls, stress or overload may cause changes to the spine or other joints. This may subsequently adversely affect the tissues, the nervous system and other areas. If this is not corrected, the patient may be more susceptible to other chronic problems.

Blockages in the cervical spine cause pain and headaches, nausea etc. Blockages in the thoracic spine cause pain in the area of ribs and difficulty in breathing, etc. These are some of the most common blockages.

- Chiropractic treatments reduce pain, improve mobility and increase performance. Patients can often avoid surgery and drug use as a result of chiropractic treatments.

- Chiropractic treatment must be preceded by an examination to make sure there are no internal or surgical problems. (314)


A therapy based on the idea that every organ in the body organs corresponds to certain points on the foot. (315) A practitioner massages specific points on the feet and thus positively affects other organs that are connected to those points. Reflexologists use special maps.

“The method was created independently of acupuncture but is similar to traditional acupressure as well as microsystem methods. However, it works exclusively with feet. It was created in 1913 by Dr. William Fitzgerald (1872-1942), and was then known as zonal therapy.” (316)

“In the 1930s, the method was improved by E. Ingham, who called it reflexology. It has spread throughout the world from the United States.” (317)

“For example, reflexology holds that a specific spot in the arch of the foot corresponds to the bladder. When a reflexologist uses thumbs or fingers to apply appropriate pressure to this area, it may affect bladder functioning.” (318)

- It is used as a complement to other treatments for anxiety, asthma, cancer, diabetes, headaches, etc. (319)


- A manual therapy similar to chiropractic. It was created in 1879 by the American physician Andrew Taylor Still (1828-1917). Osteopaths mainly use soft manipulation techniques, massage, soft tissue conditioning and muscle activation. (320)

“A natural medicine, which aims to restore the body’s functions by treating the causes of pain and imbalance. To achieve this goal, osteopathy relies on the quality and softness of its palpation and works with the position, mobility and quality of tissues.” (321)

Emphasizes the body’s natural self-healing abilities. Osteopathy aims to improve the body’s natural ability to regulate and correct itself.

Palpation is a diagnostic skill used by osteopaths to feel the condition of the examined tissues or systems. This includes many sensory aspects of touch (perceiving moisture, texture, differences in temperature and the movement of soft tissue). It is a trained skill that takes several years to develop. Experienced osteopaths can palpate not only superficially but also deep inside the body. The ability to detect very fine modifications in the quality of the tissue (overload, dehydration, scarring, stiffness, density and loss of elasticity as well as mobility) is tantamount to being able to select an appropriate treatment for the patient. (322)


A Chinese healing technique with a thousand-year tradition. It was originally a part of traditional Chinese medicine but has spread throughout the world during the 20th century.

Thin solid metal needles are used to stimulate specific points along the meridians through which the energy "chi" (or vital energy) flows – there are 365 acupuncture points on 12 meridians.

By selecting and stimulating the right points, the flow of "chi" is harmonized and the organism is rebalanced.

Other associated methods: acupressure and Tui na massage (stimulating pressure points), moxibustion (heat treatment – heating certain points with dried mugwort), cupping (stimulating points with vacuum). (323)